Biomorphism and Solar Design

Architecture & Interiors


Biomorphism is the use of living organisms as inspiration for the design of inanimate objects and environments. Bee hives have been the inspiration for social housing structures and pre-fabricated building panels. Biomorphism does not merely focus on the shapes of living organisms, but it also looks at their functional, structural, organizational, and behavioral qualities. Trees have always been used to inspire the structural columns of buildings, while the egg’s impressive compressive strength has given designers insight into the construction of concrete vaults and arches.

The plant leaf is a incredibly efficient factory for converting sunshine into energy and so, not surprisingly, it inspired the idea of the artificial solar energy collector. Usually these collectors, or cells, are rectangular in shape because this an easy module to reproduce and link together into a chain of cells to form an array. The common rectangular solar cell looks very little like a leaf, yet the shape of the leaf is not an arbitrary form. The thin membrane spans a wide surface area because of the gentle curvature that gives structural strength. Form clearly follow function for most of the natural world, because otherwise an organism fails survive.

Lilly pads have wide disc shaped leaves that float lightly on the water like a pontoon boat, allowing them to gather sunlight all day without fighting for space with their landlocked cousins. The water intensifies the sunlight that is gathered up by the leaves, which slowly rotate to match the motion of the sun as it arcs across the sky. The floating lily is tethered by its rope-like stem to roots that grip the bottom of the stream or pond, preventing the plant from floating away, while still giving it enough slack to maneuver.

The design of the lily pad is the inspiration for a proposal by ZM Architects of Scotland to build for artificial solar lily pads. Ranging in size from 15ft to 45 ft in diameter, these giant floating solar cells would advantage of the open and under used space of the River Clyde in Glasgow to generate energy for the city. These solar lilies would be tethered to shore and use small motors to rotate themselves in order to follow the sun’s path. Though the project remains at the preliminary planning stage it garnered numerous awards has sparked renewed interest in biomorphic solar design.


Taking biomorphism a little more literally is the leaf shaped solar module (a prototype) developed by Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in collaboration with corporate partners Tokki and Mitsubishi.

Each leaf is composed of layers of organic paper-thin film sandwiched into tightly and then wrapped in a water tight membrane. The intention of the designers is for the leaf modules to be grouped into artificial plant like structures.


From a design perspective solar trees that look like trees are not that compelling and certainly not much of a creative stretch, but the technology of these ultra thin solar cells lends itself to future exploration in ways that will surely surprise us.

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  1. C.K. Avangado

    Dec 29, 2008 at 7:17 am

    That looks great! “Nature is a true inspiration” ;)

  2. Nikki - Logo Design Guru

    Dec 29, 2008 at 11:43 am

    Getting inspiration from nature is such a great thing. There is so much out there to look at, that possibilities are endless. Thanks for posting and hopefully nature will provide some more great inspiration. Just gotta keep looking.

  3. Alison Kurke

    Dec 31, 2008 at 5:30 pm

    I’m afraid I can’t agree with you there. Imagine solar cell “ivy” climbing up an older building instead of typical roof panels, or roof panels that look like a green roof instead of plain silver panels. Imagine having a balcony full of solar trees! Or a small solar bush in front of a sunny window that powers its own fan! I think these are great from a design perspective. The leaf form varieties are potentially limitless as are the forms of nature! You could even train real plants up the solar plant stems….Besides, humans resist change by nature. If you can introduce them to a new technology with a familiar form, adoption is more likely, don’t you think?

    • Grant Simpson

      Jul 22, 2014 at 9:48 pm

      Absolutely Alison Kurke, i like your thinking………. Merging Art and technology with Nature is the way to go for sure…….. Solar Forests, solar trees and giant fowers in peoples yards would be appealing to many…. Look at how yard art has taken off with small solar lights and solar birds and butterflies etc………have proved very popular…… and many people are not keen on installing solar panels on their roof tops for various reasons like wrong orientation to the sun and aesthetics not appealing to worries about leaks and extra load on the roof frames in windy areas………

  4. Max C

    Dec 31, 2008 at 5:59 pm

    Interesting discussion. I think when designers take nature too literally they are in danger of being cliche’. A boat can be sleekly shaped like a fish, but if the designer took the inspiration too literally his fish-shaped boat would look silly. Artificial flowers are never as pretty as the real thing, so rather than compete with nature, why not design something inspired by nature instead. I guess that’s why I like the giant solar lilly pads. They aren’t trying to disguise themselves as lilly pads, but it’s obvious that this is what inspired the shape.

  5. boilerman

    Jun 3, 2013 at 4:42 am

    I love the idea of solar panels as plants and trees. They would have to move like plants to follow the sun a little.

    When can I have one (or a forest of them!)

  6. Tom Cheveer

    Jun 23, 2014 at 3:24 am

    It’s amazing how quickly technology is improving. Solar in particular has really taken off in the last five years and this is another ingenious way to take advantage of a renewable source!

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